The Selenium framework is a programming format that makes it simple to maintain programs. Its major function is to make code readability and maintenance much simpler. 

Selenium framework helps to automatically interact with a specified browser and carry out test cases on its own without any human intervention. But a web page contains some data stored in the backend and some functionality in the frontend. A test case should ensure that the data and functionality are connecting as they should during human interaction. As earlier said, Selenium is a perfect tool for performing these tests automation. If you wish to learn how to use Selenium, find a reputable Selenium online training

Based on the kind of webpage you wish to scrap, the Selenium frameworks to use can be classified into three. They are:

  1. Framework based on data
  2. Framework based on keywords
  3. Framework with a hybrid approach

Framework based on data

All of our test data comes from external files such as Excel, CSV, XML, or a database table in the data-driven framework.

Apache includes a well-known library POI for reading and writing Excel files. This library can read and write Excel files in both the XLS and XLSX formats.

The data-driven framework is built around several data sets that can be exported to an external file (excel sheets) and then loaded into the automation testing tool. When the number of data sets used as input by the test framework is large, changing these values in the script every time the test is run becomes very complex.

As a result, these data sets are kept apart from the original script, which can retrieve the required input from the data set excel sheet at any time. This allows the tester to make changes to the script without affecting the data sets, resulting in a far more resilient system.

As a result, you can quickly apply a single test to all of the data sets in the table without having to change the code for each one.

Framework based on Keywords

Keywords that form the foundation of the functionality, which accepts arguments and produces the appropriate result. When the code must cover a large amount of functionality, some areas may require repetitious authoring. As a result, keywords are used to hide the code’s intricacy.

In this case, the operations or techniques to be done are written in the form of keywords distinct from the actual script. The code is used to call these keywords that are stored in an external file (an Excel sheet). This allows testers to segregate the different functionality. The keywords are listed in a table, and you may change them one by one without having to change the entire table.

The Keyword Driven Framework’s main operation is to break the Test Case into four pieces. 

  • Test Step
  • The object of the Test Step
  • Action on the Test Object
  • Data for the Test Object.

The following categorization can be completed and maintained using an Excel spreadsheet:

  • Test Step: It is a brief description of the Test Step or the Action that will be performed on the Test Object. Username and Password are examples of test objects.
  • Action: This is the name of the action that will be performed on any Object, such as a click, an open browser, or an input. It is anything the user does on the webpage.
  • Test Data: Data can be any value that the Object requires to complete any operation, such as the Username value for the Username field. 

Framework with a Hybrid Approach

Data-driven and keyword-driven frameworks are combined in the Hybrid Driven Framework. The list of inputs and functions are saved in distinct files, and the framework makes use of various keywords and data sets. It employs the same code for different data sources, just like the data-driven framework.

The three types of Selenium frameworks are used in different and unique ways according to their functionalities.

When to use Each of these Frameworks

  1. Use the Data approach when the test to be carried out is more focused on data. In other words, the webpage contains a large chunk of data to be tested, when compared with the actual functionality of the webpage. 
  2. Use the Keyword approach when the test is more focused on the functionality of the webpage. In other words, each operation is stored in a table and can be accessed through keywords. These keywords are used when a certain functional operation is required.
  3. Use the hybrid approach when there is a balance between the dataset on the webpage and the functionality of the webpage. It is best when there is a large amount of code and data on the webpage. By using the hybrid approach, you avoid complexity in the automation testing process. 


From the above explanation, we have been able to point out the three main types of frameworks in selenium and how they’re used.

Automation testing with Selenium appears to be the best option for rapid and reliable testing that spans several browsers and devices to ensure compatibility. 

With Selenium WebDriver, we may develop three different sorts of test frameworks. These test frameworks are Data-based, Keyword-based, and Hybrid-based. Keywords are written in external files, such as excel files, in the Keyword Driven Framework, and java code will call this file and execute test cases. The hybrid framework combines keyword and data-driven approaches. Selenium Framework is widely used in the business because it offers greater feasibility, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness than other testing frameworks. As a result, it’s an excellent way to provide a consistent end-user experience that follows the continuous delivery methodology. If you wish to learn more about Selenium and get hands-on experience, you can enroll in a Selenium certification training.